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A safia chegou aos Açores

Os mergulhadores e os pescadores dos Açores é que repararam na novidade. Começaram a ver no mar um peixe parecido com o sargo – mas, em vez de várias riscas, tinha duas bandas negras largas. Este peixe, a safia, nunca tinha avistado naquelas águas antes dos anos 1990 e estava então a tornar-se cada vez mais frequente. Agora, é capturado habitualmente e é comum nos mercados açorianos.

Não se sabia, até ao momento, a origem destes peixes nem por que eram cada vez mais abundantes nos Açores. Um artigo recente, na revista científica Heredity, veio esclarecer o mistério: as safias chegaram aos Açores nas últimas décadas vindas de Portugal continental.

A safia, cujo nome científico é Diplodus vulgaris, é ainda conhecida por sargo-safia e, na Madeira, também por seifia. Não é um peixe grande: um adulto mede 20 a 25 centímetros. Pertencendo ao mesmo género do sargo, o Diplodus sargus, distingue-se bem deste por ter uma boca mais saliente e pelas duas riscas negras, uma perto da cabeça e outra junto à cauda. Em Portugal Continental não é tão comum como o sargo, mas aparece frequentemente nos mercados, é mais barato do que aquele peixe e é vendido para grelhar.

É um peixe costeiro, pelo que é comum verem-se os seus juvenis (peixes pequenos) nas poças rochosas nas praias do Algarve. Existe desde o Senegal até ao golfo de Biscaia, incluindo o Mediterrâneo e indo até às Canárias. Já era comum nas costas de Portugal continental e na Madeira e agora estendeu a sua distribuição até ao arquipélago açoriano – onde a sua presença atraiu o interesse dos cientistas do Departamento de Oceanografia e Pescas (DOP) da Universidade dos Açores.

Com o aquecimento global, as alterações nas distribuições geográficas nas espécies são cada vez mais comuns — até as sardinhas e as douradas estão a ir mais para norte. Contudo, o aparecimento de uma espécie nova nas ilhas foi surpreendente. “A temperatura da água do mar está a subir devido ao aquecimento global. Em consequência disso, no Continente temos visto espécies do Norte de Marrocos. Mas ver surgir uma espécie que de que não havia registos nos Açores, umas ilhas no meio do Atlântico, a mais de 1000 quilómetros do continente europeu, é mais surpreendente”, considera Rita Castilho, do Centro de Ciências do Mar da Universidade do Algarve e co-autora do estudo.

Os próprios investigadores do DOP testemunharam o estabelecimento desta espécie nas ilhas. “Um estudo detalhado da ictiofauna dos Açores do final dos anos 1990 não incluía referência a Diplodus vulgaris”, conta ao PÚBLICO Sergio Stefanni, líder deste trabalho, actualmente cientista do Conselho Nacional de Investigação de Itália e que antes trabalhou no DOP. Em 1997, observaram-se pela primeira vez safias jovens e ao longo dos anos seguintes viram-se indivíduos de todas as classes etárias e eram cada vez mais abundantes.

Para resolver o enigma da origem destes peixes – teria havido uma colonização recente ou existiria nos Açores uma pequena população antiga que aumentou muito nos últimos 20 anos? –, os cientistas recorreram à comparação genética de indivíduos de 11 populações da área de distribuição da safia, do Atlântico e Mediterrâneo.

Foi nesta parte do estudo em que Rita Castilho, que trabalha em genética de populações. “Recebi pedaços de músculo de peixe – a carne branca –, em tubos de álcool”, conta a investigadora, que usou essas amostras para as análises genéticas.

Como os indivíduos podem sofrer alterações genéticas e essas mutações vão-se acumulando ao longo do tempo, se a população dos Açores (que está isolada) se tivesse estabelecido aí há muito tempo seria distinta geneticamente das restantes populações.

Os resultados mostraram que a população açoriana de safias tem poucas variantes genéticas únicas, o que indica que é recente. A safia terá alcançado os Açores há 80 a 150 anos e a sua população expandiu-se desde então. Os cientistas não excluem a possibilidade de essa chegada ter sido mais recente ou que tenha havido colonizações sucessivas. Como as águas dos Açores não são mais frias do que as do Continente, as safias encontraram condições para se estabelecer.

A travessia do Atlântico
“As safias dos Açores poderão ter vindo da Madeira e/ou do Sul de Portugal. Uma rota muito provável é: Portugal continental – Açores, via Madeira ”, conta Rita Castilho.

Mas os cientistas pensam que não foram safias adultas que chegaram aos Açores, mas sim as suas larvas. “A safia é uma espécie costeira. Os adultos e os juvenis dependem das presas que encontram no fundo do mar — ouriços-do-mar, ofiurídeos, pulgas-do-mar e poliquetas [vermes]. Mas como não vão a grandes profundidades, não ultrapassam os 150 metros, por isso não vão fazer uma viagem de 1000 quilómetros sem nada comer”, salienta. Pelo contrário, as larvas possuem reservas nutritivas que são o seu alimento durante os 29 a 58 dias da fase larvar.

As larvas não terão ido a nadar até aos Açores, uma vez que não conseguem contrariar as correntes. Elas andam ao sabor das correntes, e foi assim que lá chegaram. “Em condições normais, as correntes não são favoráveis para a chegada aos Açores, vindo do Continente, mas de vez em quando existem anomalias nas correntes causadas pelo aquecimento das águas superficiais, que invertem a sua direcção. Especulamos que tenha sido num destes episódios anómalos que a safia chegou aos Açores”, continua a bióloga. “O aumento da temperatura das águas superficiais no Nordeste do Atlântico afectou os padrões de circulação em vota dos Açores”, lê-se também no artigo.

Nos cálculos dos investigadores, as larvas poderão levar entre 40 a 80 dias a fazer a viagem entre Portugal continental e os Açores.

O que mais espantou a equipa até nem foram os resultados em si. “Ficámos sobretudo surpreendidos com a capacidade dos métodos actuais detectarem uma colonização tão recente.” Como há outras espécies que estão a alterar a sua distribuição geográfica, os investigadores pretendem agora aplicar os mesmos métodos para as estudar, e antevêem que eles sejam úteis para gerir a exploração dos recursos ou para o estabelecimento de áreas protegidas.

Quanto às safias, parecem ter chegado aos Açores para ficar. Talvez daqui a umas décadas façam parte da gastronomia açoriana.

Texto editado por Teresa Firmino

Fonte: Publico

This entry was posted in Blog and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

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